2010 Natural Area Survey

In 2010 a Natural Area Survey was carried out by P&J Smith Ecological Consultants to review the native vegetation, flora and fauna of the North Sydney local government area. A total of about 49ha of bushland has been identified and mapped, representing less than 5% of the total land area of the LGA.

As a result, 12 native vegetation communities have been distinguished in North Sydney and a total of 347 native vascular plant species and subspecies have been recorded.


Listed below are each of the 12 vegetation communities that were distinguished with all plant species that have been recorded in these communities in 2010.

Angophora Foreshore Forest

Open-forest, occasionally tall open-forest, in which the dominant tree species is Angophora costata (Sydney Red Gum). This vegetation community is found both along the harbour foreshores and up to 1km away.

Allocasuarina Scrub

Open-scrub dominated by Allocasuarina Iittoralis (Black She-oak). The distribution is restricted to two sites in Tunks Park, where it occurs on steep slopes on Hawkesbury Sandstone. 

Blackbutt Gully Forest

Open-forest or tall open-forest, in which the dominant tree species is Eucalyptus pilularis (Blackbutt). It occurs in Wollstonecraft, Cremorne and Cammeray. 

Disclimax Sandstone Scrub

Is open to closed scrub, or a forest of mixed and variable composition. A 'disclimax' community is an altered community that has replaced the original vegetation community as a result of disturbance. Disclimax Sandstone Scrub develops in sites where the original eucalypt forest vegetation has been subject to clearing or dieback.

Estuarine Mangrove Forest

Is a low closed-forest of Avicennia marina (Grey Mangrove) growing on intertidal mudflats. In North Sydney its distribution is restricted to Core Cove Reserve where it grows on the intertidal mudflats at the mouth of Berry Creek. 

Estuarine Saltmarsh

Herbland of Sarvovorinia quinqueflora (Samphire) and Suaeda australis (Seablite), growing on intertidal mudflats. The introduced species, Atriplex prostrata (Orache), is a co-dominant. The distribution of this vegetation community is restricted to Gore Cove Reserve and it is listed as an endangered ecological community in NSW. 

Sandstone Gallery Rainforest

Closed-forest dominated by Acmena smithii (Lilly Pilly), Ceratopetalum apetalum (Coachwood) and Pittosporum undulatum (Pittosporum), in various combinations. This vegetation community occurs on steep, sheltered slopes besides rock creeklines on Hawkesbury Sandstone in Wollstonecraft and Cremorne.

Kunzea Scrub

Open-scrub dominated by Kunzea ambigua (Tick Bush), growing on top of harbour headlands with extensive flat sandstone outcrops. It occurs in Wollstonecraft and Waverton.

Mixed Sandstone Gully Forest

Open-forest of mixed tree composition. Distribution is restricted to Wonga Road Reserve and Tobruk Avenue Lookout, occuring on a steep slope beside Willoughby Bay.

Forest Red Gum Foreshore Forest

Open-forest in which the dominant tree species is Eucalyptus tereticornis (Forest Red Gum). This vegetation community is a rare and unusual type of Turpentine-Ironbark Forest. It is listed as endangerd under NSW and Commonwealth legislation. In North Sydney it only occurs on one site at Badangi Reserve on the sides and across the top of a small peninsula in Balls Head Bay.

Estuarine Swamp Oak Forest

Open-forest dominated by Casuarina glauca (Swamp Oak), growing adjacent to the intertidal zone. This vegetation community is listed as an endangered ecological community in NSW and occurs in Wollstonecraft and Cammeray.

Sandstone Foreshore Scrub

Open-scrub or closed-scrub growing on steep sandstone slopes adjacent to the harbour, with extensive sandstone outcrops and cliffs. It is similar to Disclimax Sandstone Scrub, but appears to be a natural community. This vegetation community occurs in Wollstonecraft, Waverton and Cremorne Point.

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